Yugoslavia, Romania, Greece, and Bulgaria between the two World Wars. After World War II, over 600,000 Jews, mainly from Europe, moved into the newly created state of Israel within 14 months of its creation. And most recently, millions of refugees, uprooted from the Vietnamese countryside, have poured into the cities, rapidly making South Vietnam one of the most urbanized regions of southern Asia.
One significant difference between the economic and political migrant is that whereas the economic migrant moves as an individual, the political migrant often moves as a member of a group. The political migrant has chosen to move or, more often, been forced to move because of his identity. It is because other people, for political reasons, have classified him as a Hindu, a Muslim, a Bulgarian, a Turk, a Greek, or a Jew that he is often forced to move, though he himself may not have been concerned with his identity until it was forced upon him by political circumstances. Moreover, since political migrations are generally international migrations, the migrant has assumed a new political identity by changing his nationality.
International political migrations have had widespread political consequences in those parts of the world in which they have occurred. For example, not only was a new Jewish identity created by Jewish migrants who went to Israel, but a new Palestinian Arab identity was created as well. In the future, the struggle in the Middle East may be increasingly between Israeli nationalism and the nationalism of the Palestinian Arabs, who consider themselves, as the Jews did before them, a nationality in search of a state.
Similarly, the partition of India and Pakistan created a cohesive, distinct social and political community among the Sikhs in the partitioned province of the Punjab. The Sikhs who fled from Pakistan into India became a more militant and cohesive political group than they had previously been. The Akali Dal, a political party of Sikhs, won a demand for a separate state in 1966 when the Indian government agreed to partition the Punjab into Sikh-majority and Hindu-majority states.
One of the most typical types of forced political migration is the movement of an ethnic group from the country in which it is a minority to the country in which it constitutes the majority. Such was the pattern of migrations in the Balkans between the World Wars. However, even in these instances the migrant is not always assimilated easily—politically that is—into his new homeland. The Greek refugees who fled in terror to Greece from Anatolia in the early 1920's constituted a distinct political force in their new homeland. It has been suggested that the more than one million refugees who entered Greece decisively changed the complexion of political parties in Greece (57, 58).
Political Behavior of Migrants. One striking difference between the politi-ssful effort by the Greek Army to invade Turkey, some 1,200,000 Greeks from Anatolia fled to Greece. It has also been estimated that something like a million Turks were "repatriated" from. The difference in growth rate seems cuts both ways. less important.